Given its hybrid legal nature, President Obama was able to ratify the Paris Agreement through executive measures, without seeking the Council and Senate approval. The agreement came into force at the end of 2016, much earlier than expected, and the parties are now developing detailed terms of implementation that will be adopted at COP 24 in 2018. Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  On December 12, 2015, 195 Governments in Paris approved the text of the most important global climate agreement in history. The international agreement, known as the Paris Agreement, requires almost every country in the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the dangerous effects of climate change. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term.